An interpretation of the translation of chapter 4 [pages 181-192] of Richard Lower’s famous book translated from the original Latin by N. Peters in 1739; a copy of this book [‘A Treatise of the Heart, of the motion and colour of the blood and of the passage of the Chyle’] is held in the library of the Royal College of Physicians in London.

The first chapter of this book [pages 1-26] titled ‘History of Blood Transfusion’ includes information relating not only to the historical background of transfusion but also includes information on the first blood transfusions experiments performed in England, France, Italy, Germany and Holland.

The ‘historical section’ of this book [pages 1-46] covers a large amount of information regarding transfusion in antiquity and pre-Harvarian history, the infusion and transfusion experiments performed on animals in England, Denis’s transfusions in France during the 17th century as well as Blundell’s research work, including the 19thcentury arguments for and against transfusion and the use of defibrinated blood.

A translation of the first two parts of this book [pages 2-112], the first of which includes pre-history information relating to transfusion followed by the history of transfusion broken down into three time periods, i.e. 1665 – 1668, 1668 – 1818 and 1818 – 1868 that includes ‘priority disputes’, Denis’s first two human transfusions and Blundell’s experiments.  The second part collects together details of many of the published reports of transfusion performed between 1665 and 1868.

A translation of the first two time periods of the ‘Physiological History of Blood Transfusion’ section of Pierre Oré’s second book includes information relating to the time periods Antiquity – 1668 and 1668 – 1818, together with the first part of the third period ‘from 1818’, which includes a resume of Blundell’s and Dieffenbach’s experiments [pages 1-61].

A translation of the ‘Historical development of transfusion theory’ section of this book [pages 3-18] that provides information on the transfusions performed by Denis and Emmerez in France as well as the period after Blundell’s experiments, which includes historical events up to the year of the book’s publication.

The ‘history of transfusion’ sections of this book [pages 1-90] are presented in three time periods, i.e. ‘mythology, before the discovery of the circulation’, ‘the experimental period up to the end of the 18th century’ and the ‘practical or therapeutic period from the end of the 18th century’, which provide information on the history of transfusion, particularly in Italy, which include suggestions for a variety of alternative ‘priority claims’.

A translation of the first two chapters of this book [pages 1-27), the first of which, ‘Historical Introduction’, includes a variety of different pieces of information relating to the history of transfusion from antiquity, whilst the second chapter, ‘Transfusion with defibrinated blood’ includes information regarding the work performed in Germany by Muller, Dieffenbach and the author.

A translation of this 250 page book, which is one of the foremost references for historical information relating to blood transfusion (and infusion) experiments performed in England, France and Germany during the second half of the 17th century.

A translation of selected sections of Scheel’s second book that provide information about blood transfusion, including information about Italian and Dutch research (in addition to English and French) which is missing from his first volume.

The first section of this book [pages 1-46] includes a discussion of the possible origins of transfusion followed by information on the history of transfusion relating to three time periods, the ‘17th century’ (1665-1668), the ‘18th century’ (1669-1818) and the ‘19th century’ (1819- 1875) that provides information regarding the work performed in Italy as well as that in England, France and Germany.

As well as ‘historical background’ information to blood transfusion prior to the 19th century, chapter VI [pages 51-95] of this book provides a resume of the early research work performed after 1818, especially on the use of defibrinated blood and the temperature of transfused blood.

The ‘History of Transfusion’ section of this book [pages 7-17] includes somewhat disjointed information relating to what the author refers to as the three periods, i.e. mythological, application and experimental, of blood transfusion history.  The translation also includes the first part of the next section of the book [pages 18-22] which contains a discussion of some of the pros and cons of using animal or human blood donors.

A translation of selected sections of this book that relate to transfusion (rather than infusion) includes a short review of Tietzel’s work in Germany, a review of the work on transfusion by Magendle, Prevost and Dumas in France, and the work performed by Blundell and colleagues in England.

This book, of over 150 pages, covers the history of blood transfusion from antiquity until the end of the 19th century, but does not unfortunately include any information regarding the development of blood transfusion during the early part of the 20th century.

Although given precedence in the title, the ‘history of transfusion’ section is included at the end of this book [pages 161-187] and in fact comprises a section of selected references of ‘Old Transfusion Literature’, some of which also include the authors own comments, followed by a list of ‘New Transfusion Literature’ of nearly 270 references, in published date order, from 1815 to 1872.

A translation of the preface, written by De La Chapelle, to the French edition of this book (which the English edition does not have) unexpectedly includes summaries and comments on a number of early transfusion experiments performed by different people in various countries as well as the methodology used to transfuse humans.

Chapter V [pages 122-216] of this book, that contains a variety of different subject topics, is titled ‘History of infusion and attempts to demonstrate the safe use of this operation’, which contains a large amount of historical information on early blood transfusions.

This 32 page booklet describes the methodology of blood transfusion used by Paolo Manfredi and the surgeon Bartolomeo Simoncelli, who on the 5th January 1668 transfused a man with lamb’s blood, which also includes comments intended to counter the accusations, controversy and debate that blood transfusion experiments had instigated in Rome, as it was to do in other parts of Europe, at that time.

Pile of Newspapers